Chapter 6 | Planning Instructional Activity
Susan (student) and Bill (Certiﬁcated Flight Instructor (CFI)) are ﬂying a lesson scenario which consists of a short cross-country leg to a local airport for some practice landings followed by a return to the home airport located in Class C airspace. While practicing landings at the nontowered airport, the student notes that the ceiling is lowering and the crosswind is beginning to increase. In his own mind, Bill is convinced that they can practice landings for another 30 minutes to an hour and still return to home base. However, instead of telling Susan this, while taxiing back after a full stop landing, he ﬁrst asks her several questions.
Has the ﬂight situation changed since they left the home ﬁeld?
What does she think of the weather situation?
How can we gain more information?
- Check with Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) on the radio?
- Stop at the Fixed Based Operator (FBO) and call back to the FBO to check on weather and the schedule?
- Are there other issues?
- Aircraft equipment (instrument ﬂight rules (IFR)/visual ﬂight rules (VFR)) and pilot capability?
Susan decides that she would be more comfortable returning to the home airport and practicing landings there to stay out of the weather. Although not his plan, it is a good plan based on accurate situational awareness and good risk management skills, so Bill agrees. Susan is now beginning to gain conﬁdence by practicing her judgment and decision-making skills. In the postﬂight critique, Susan leads a discussion of this and other decisions she has made in order to learn more about the process.
In the past, the aviation instructor was a capable pilot or aviation technician with a rather general understanding of basic teaching methods and techniques. More recently, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has paid more attention to the instructor’s role as teacher and mentor, and has provided a much better grounding in instructional techniques. The instructor is now required to master the teaching methods, write lesson objectives, outline and write lesson plans, and motivate students by example. The instructor is responsible for what is taught in the aircraft and classroom. The amount of learning that takes place is a direct result of how well the lesson is prepared and the teaching skill of the instructor.
Historically, aviation instruction focused on the performance of speciﬁc procedures and/or maneuvers, and learning was measured with objective standards. Changing technology and innovations in learning provide today’s aviation instructors with the opportunity to use new methods and teach to new standards. One of these methods, introduced in Chapter 4, The Teaching Process, is scenario-based training (SBT). While SBT is an integral component of today’s aviation training, the instructor is crucial to its implementation. By emphasizing SBT, the instructor functions in the learning environment as an advisor and guide for the learner.
Whatever the method of teaching, the key to developing well-planned and organized aviation instruction includes using lesson plans and a training syllabus that meet all regulatory certification requirements. Much of the basic planning necessary for the ﬂight instructor and maintenance instructor is provided by the knowledge and proﬁciency requirements published in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 61 and 65, approved school syllabi, and the various texts, manuals, and training courses available. This chapter reviews the planning required by the professional aviation instructor as it relates to four key topics—course of training, blocks of learning, training syllabus, and lesson plans. It also explains how to integrate SBT, aeronautical decision-making (ADM), and risk management into the aviation training lesson.
Course of Training
As discussed in chapter 4, a course of training is a series of studies leading to attainment of a speciﬁc goal such as a certiﬁcate of completion, graduation, or an academic degree. An instructor plans instructional content around the course of training by determining the objectives and standards, which in turn determine individual lesson plans, test items, and levels of learning. For a complete discussion of determining these items, see chapter 4.
Blocks of Learning
After the overall training objectives have been established, the next step is the identiﬁcation of the blocks of learning which constitute the necessary parts of the total objective. Just as in building a pyramid, some blocks are submerged in the structure and never appear on the surface, but each is an integral and necessary part of the structure. Thus, the various blocks are not isolated subjects, but essential parts of the whole. During the process of identifying the blocks of learning to be assembled for the proposed training activity, the instructor must also examine each block to ensure it is an integral part of the structure. Extraneous blocks of instruction are expensive frills, especially in ﬂight instruction, and detract from, rather than assist in, the completion of the ﬁnal objective.
While determining the overall training objectives is a necessary first step in the planning process, early identiﬁcation of the foundation blocks of learning is also essential. Training for any such complicated and involved task as piloting or maintaining an aircraft requires the development and assembly of many segments or blocks of learning in their proper relationships. In this way, a student can master the segments or blocks individually and can progressively combine these with other related segments until their sum meets the overall training objectives.
The blocks of learning identiﬁed during the planning and management of a training activity should be fairly consistent in scope. They should represent units of learning which can be measured and evaluated—not a sequence of periods of instruction. For example, the ﬂight training of a private pilot might be divided into the following major blocks: achievement of the knowledge and skills necessary for solo, the knowledge and skills necessary for solo cross-country ﬂight, and the knowledge and skills appropriate for obtaining a private pilot certiﬁcate. [figure 6-1]
figure 6-1. The presolo stage or phase of private pilot training is comprised of several basic building blocks. These blocks of learning, which should include coordinated ground and flight training, lead up to the first solo.
Use of the building block approach provides the student with a boost in self-conﬁdence. This normally occurs each time a block is completed. Otherwise, an overall goal, such as earning a mechanic’s certiﬁcate, may seem unobtainable. If the larger blocks are broken down into smaller blocks of instruction, each on its own is more manageable. Humans learn from the simple to the complex. For example, an student airplane pilot should understand and master the technique of a normal landing prior to being introduced to short and soft ﬁeld landings. A helicopter pilot must be proﬁcient in running landings before the instructor introduces a no hydraulics approach and landing.
By becoming familiar with the student’s aviation background, an instructor can plan the sequence of instruction blocks. Does the applicant have previous aeronautical experience or posses a pilot certiﬁcate in another category? This information will help the instructor design appropriate training blocks. For example, if the student is a helicopter pilot who is transitioning to an airplane, he or she will understand speed control, but not necessarily know how to achieve it in an airplane. The instructor can plan blocks of instruction that build on what the student already knows.
Aviation instructors use a training syllabus because as technology advances, training requirements become more demanding. At the same time, new, and often more complicated, rules continue to be proposed and implemented. In addition, the rules for instruction in other than an approved aviation school are still quite speciﬁc about the type and duration of training. These factors, along with the continuing growth of aviation, add to the complexity of aviation training and certiﬁcation. Instructors need a practical guide to help them make sure the training is accomplished in a logical sequence and that all of the requirements are completed and properly documented. A well organized, comprehensive syllabus can fulﬁll these needs.
Syllabus Format and Content
The format and organization of the syllabus may vary, but it always should be in the form of an abstract or digest of the course of training. It should contain blocks of learning to be completed in the most efﬁcient order. Since a syllabus is intended to be a summary of a course of training, it should be fairly brief, yet comprehensive enough to cover essential information. This information is usually presented in an outline format with lesson-by-lesson coverage. Some syllabi include tables to show recommended training time for each lesson, as well as the overall minimum time requirements. [figure 6-2]
figure 6-2. This excerpt of a ground lesson shows a unit of ground instruction. In this example, neither the time nor the number of ground training periods to be devoted to the lesson is specified. The lesson should include three parts—objective, content, and completion standards.
While many instructors may develop their own training syllabi, there are many well-designed commercial products that may be used. These are found in various training manuals, approved school syllabi, and other publications available from industry.
Syllabi developed for approved ﬂight schools contain speciﬁc information that is outlined in 14 CFR parts 141 and 142. In contrast, syllabi designed for training in other than approved schools may not provide certain details such as enrollment prerequisites, planned completion times, and descriptions of checks and tests to measure student accomplishments for each stage of training.
Since effective training relies on organized blocks of learning, all syllabi should stress well-deﬁned objectives and standards for each lesson. Appropriate objectives and standards should be established for the overall course, the separate ground and ﬂight segments, and for each stage of training. Other details may be added to a syllabus in order to explain how to use it and describe the pertinent training and reference materials. Examples of the training and reference materials include textbooks, video, compact disks, exams, brieﬁngs, and instructional guides.
How To Use a Training Syllabus
Any practical training syllabus must be ﬂexible and should be used primarily as a guide. [figure 6-3] When necessary, the order of training can and should be altered to suit the progress of the student and the demands of special circumstances. For example, previous experience or different rates of learning often require some alteration or repetition to ﬁt individual students. The syllabus should also be ﬂexible enough so it can be adapted to weather variations, aircraft availability, and scheduling changes without disrupting the teaching process or completely suspending training.
figure 6-3. The curriculum and training syllabus provide teaching guidelines.
In departing from the order prescribed by the syllabus, however, it is the responsibility of the instructor to consider how the relationships of the blocks of learning are affected. For example, if the student is having a difﬁcult time with normal approaches and landings, the instructor might decide to delay adding short ﬁeld landings, which were originally to be the next step in his block of instruction. To prevent the student from becoming frustrated with his or her poor landing technique, the instructor may choose to review the block on slow ﬂight, which offers the student a chance to do well and regain conﬁdence. This exercise also builds the skills necessary for the student to master approaches and normal landings.
Each approved training course provided by a certiﬁcated aviation school should be conducted in accordance with a training syllabus speciﬁcally approved by the FAA. At certiﬁcated schools, the syllabus is a key part of the training course outline. The instructional facilities, airport, aircraft, and instructor personnel must be able to support the course of training speciﬁed in the syllabus. Compliance with the appropriate, approved syllabus is a condition for graduation from such courses. Therefore, effective use of a syllabus requires that it be referred to throughout the entire course of training. Both the instructor and the student should have a copy of the approved syllabus. However, as previously mentioned, adherence to a syllabus should not be so stringent that it becomes inﬂexible or unchangeable. It must be ﬂexible enough to adapt to the special needs of individual students.
Ground training lessons and classroom lectures concentrate on the cognitive domain of learning. A typical lesson might include deﬁning, labeling, or listing what the student has learned so far. Many of the knowledge areas are directly or indirectly concerned with safety, ADM, and judgment. Since these subjects are associated with the affective domain of learning (emotion), instructors who ﬁnd a way to stress safety, ADM, and judgment, along with the traditional aviation subjects, can favorably inﬂuence a student’s attitude, beliefs, and values.
Flight training lessons or aviation technical lab sessions also include knowledge areas, but they generally emphasize the psychomotor domain of learning because the student is “doing” something. The lesson plan shown in figure 6-4 shows the main elements of a ground lesson for a ﬂight student. The affective domain of learning is also important in this type of training; a student’s attitude toward safety, ADM, and judgment, should be a major concern of the instructor.
figure 6-4. A flight training lesson, like a ground training lesson, should include an objective, content, and completion standards. More than one objective could, and often does, apply to a single flight lesson.
The ﬂight training syllabus should include special emphasis items that have been determined to be cause factors in aircraft accidents or incidents. For example, the instructor should emphasize collision and wake turbulence avoidance procedures throughout a student’s flight training. The aviation technician syllabus should also emphasize what constitutes unsafe practices, such the ease of introducing foreign object damage (FOD) to an aircraft when the location of tools is not monitored.
A syllabus may include several other items that add to or clarify the objective, content, or standards. A lesson may specify the recommended class time, reference or study materials, recommended sequence of training, and study assignment for the next lesson. Both ground and ﬂight lessons may have explanatory information notes added to speciﬁc lessons. [figure 6-5]
figure 6-5. Information in the form of notes may be added to individual ground or flight lessons in a syllabus when they are necessary.
While a syllabus is designed to provide a road map showing how to accomplish the overall objective of a course of training, it may be useful for other purposes. As already mentioned, it can be used as a checklist to ensure that required training has successfully been completed. Thus, a syllabus can be an effective tool for recordkeeping. Enhanced syllabi, which also are designed for recordkeeping, can be very beneﬁcial to the independent instructor.
This recordkeeping function is usually facilitated by boxes or blank spaces adjacent to the knowledge areas, procedures, or maneuvers in a lesson. Most syllabi introduce each procedure or maneuver in one lesson and review them in subsequent lessons. Some syllabi also include provisions for grading student performance and recording both ground and ﬂight training time. Accurate recordkeeping is necessary to keep both the student and the instructor informed on the status of training. These records also serve as a basis for endorsements and recommendations for knowledge and practical tests. Some training syllabi or records may include coded numbers or letters for other instructors to record their evaluation of a student’s progress and knowledge or skill level. [figure 6-6]
figure 6-6. Glider training log.
Another beneﬁt of using a syllabus is that it helps in the development of lesson plans. A well constructed syllabus already contains much of the essential information that is required in a lesson plan, including objectives, content, and completion standards.
A lesson plan is an organized outline for a single instructional period. It is a necessary guide for the instructor because it tells what to do, in what order to do it, and what procedure to use in teaching the material of a lesson. Lesson plans should be prepared for each training period and be developed to show speciﬁc knowledge and/or skills to be taught.
A mental outline of a lesson is not a lesson plan. A lesson plan should be put into writing. Another instructor should be able to take the lesson plan and know what to do in conducting the same period of instruction. Written out, the lesson plan can be analyzed for adequacy and completeness.
Lesson plans make excellent recordkeeping forms that can become a permanent part of a pilot’s training record. They can be formatted for the instructor to carry in the aircraft and include a checklist for indicating what portions of the lesson were completed, date of completion, the ﬂight instructor’s signature, and time ﬂown. The lesson plan can also have a notation section for ﬂight instructor comments.
A training folder for each student helps an instructor keep all pertinent data in one place. The folder should include items such as lesson plans, training requirements, ﬂight or ground instruction received, 14 CFR part 61 requirements met, solo endorsements, and any other training information. These records should be kept in a safe area for at least 3 years. Good recordkeeping also provides each instructor with the number of students he or she has trained, which is helpful information for an instructor who needs to renew his or her certiﬁcate. For sample lesson plans, please refer to Appendix A.
Purpose of the Lesson Plan
Lesson plans are designed to assure that each student receives the best possible instruction under the existing conditions. Lesson plans help instructors keep a constant check on their own activity, as well as that of their students. The development of lesson plans by instructors signiﬁes, in effect, that they have taught the lessons to themselves prior to attempting to teach the lessons to students. An adequate lesson plan, when properly used, should:
Assure a wise selection of material and the elimination of unimportant details.
Make certain that due consideration is given to each part of the lesson.
Aid the instructor in presenting the material in a suitable sequence for efﬁcient learning.
Provide an outline of the teaching procedure to be used.
Serve as a means of relating the lesson to the objectives of the course of training.
Give the inexperienced instructor conﬁdence.
Promote uniformity of instruction regardless of the instructor or the date on which the lesson is given.
Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson
The quality of planning affects the quality of results. Successful professionals understand that the price of excellence is hard work and thorough preparation. The effective instructor realizes that the time and energy spent in planning and preparing each lesson is well worth the effort in the long run.
A complete cycle of planning usually includes several steps. After the objective is determined, the instructor must research the subject as it is deﬁned by the objective. Once the research is complete, the instructor determines the method of instruction and identiﬁes a useful lesson planning format. The decision of how to organize the lesson and the selection of suitable support material come next. The ﬁnal steps include assembling training aids and writing the lesson plan outline. One technique for writing the lesson plan outline is to prepare the beginning and ending ﬁrst. Then, complete the outline and revise as required. A lesson plan should be a working document that can and should be revised as changes occur or are needed.
The following are some of the important characteristics that should be reﬂected in all well-planned lessons.
Unity—each lesson should be a uniﬁed segment of instruction. A lesson is concerned with certain limited objectives, which are stated in terms of desired student learning outcomes. All teaching procedures and materials should be selected to attain these objectives.
Content—each lesson should contain new material. However, the new facts, principles, procedures, or skills should be related to the lesson previously presented. A short review of earlier lessons is usually necessary, particularly in ﬂight training.
Scope—each lesson should be reasonable in scope. A person can master only a few principles or skills at a time, the number depending on complexity. Presenting too much material in a lesson results in confusion; presenting too little material results in inefﬁciency.
Practicality—each lesson should be planned in terms of the conditions under which the training is to be conducted. Lesson plans conducted in an airplane or ground trainer will differ from those conducted in a classroom. Also, the kinds and quantities of instructional aids available have a great inﬂuence on lesson planning and instructional procedures.
Flexibility—although the lesson plan provides an outline and sequence for the training to be conducted, a degree of ﬂexibility should be incorporated. For example, the outline of content may include blank spaces for add-on material, if required.
Relation to course of training—each lesson should be planned and taught so that its relation to the course objectives is clear to each student. For example, a lesson on short ﬁeld takeoffs and landings should be related to both the certiﬁcation and safety objectives of the course of training.
Instructional steps—every lesson, when adequately developed, falls logically into the four steps of the teaching process: preparation, presentation, application, and review and evaluation.
How To Use a Lesson Plan Properly
Be familiar with the lesson plan. The instructor should study each step of the plan and should be thoroughly familiar with as much information related to the subject as possible.
Use the lesson plan as a guide. The lesson plan is an outline for conducting an instructional period. It assures that pertinent materials are at hand and that the presentation is accomplished with order and unity. Having a plan prevents the instructor from getting off track, omitting essential points, and introducing irrelevant material. Students have a right to expect an instructor to give the same attention to teaching that they give to learning. The most certain means of achieving teaching success is to have a carefully reviewed lesson plan.
Adapt the lesson plan to the class or student. In teaching a class, the instructor may ﬁnd that the procedures outlined in the lesson plan are not leading to the desired results. In this situation, the instructor should change the approach. There is no certain way of predicting the reactions of different groups of students. An approach that has been successful with one group may not be equally successful with another.
A lesson plan for an instructional flight period should be appropriate to the background, ﬂight experience, and ability of the particular student. A lesson plan may have to be modiﬁed considerably during ﬂight, due to deﬁciencies in the student’s knowledge or poor mastery of elements essential to the effective completion of the lesson. In some cases, the entire lesson plan may have to be abandoned in favor of review.
Revise the lesson plan periodically. After a lesson plan has been prepared for a training period, a continuous revision may be necessary. This is true for a number of reasons such as availability or non-availability of instructional aids, changes in regulations, or new manuals and textbooks.
Lesson Plan Formats
The format and style of a lesson plan depends on several factors. Certainly the subject matter helps determine how a lesson is presented and what teaching method is used. Individual lesson plans may be quite simple for one-on-one training, or they may be elaborate and complicated for large, structured classroom lessons. Preferably, each lesson should have somewhat limited objectives that are achievable within a reasonable period of time. This principle should apply to both ground and ﬂight training. However, as previously noted, aviation training is not simple. It involves all three domains of learning, and the objectives usually include the higher levels of learning, at least at the application level.
In spite of need for varied subject coverage, diverse teaching methods, and relatively high level learning objectives, most aviation lesson plans have the common characteristics already discussed. All should include objectives, content to support the objectives, and completion standards. Various authorities often divide the main headings into several subheadings; terminology, even for the main headings, varies extensively. For example, completion standards may be called assessment, review and feedback, performance evaluation, or some other related term.
Commercially developed lesson plans are acceptable for most training situations, including use by ﬂight instructor applicants during their practical tests. However, all instructors should recognize that even well-designed preprinted lesson plans may need to be modiﬁed. Therefore, instructors are encouraged to use creativity when adapting preprinted lesson plans or when developing their own lesson plans for speciﬁc students or training circumstances.
figure 6-7. Example of a traditional training lesson plan.
In the traditional lesson plan illustrated by figure 6-7, the objective is “The student will learn to control for wind drift.” The content has the instructor pilot giving a thorough coverage of heading, speed, angle of bank, altitude, terrain, and wind direction plus velocity. This explanation is followed by a demonstration and repeated practice of a speciﬁc ﬂight maneuver, such as turns around a point or S-turns across the road until the maneuver can be consistently accomplished in a safe and effective manner within a speciﬁed limit of heading, altitude, and airspeed. At the end of this lesson, the student is only capable of practicing the maneuver with assistance from the instructor.
The traditional type of training lesson plan with its focus on the task and maneuver or procedure continues to meet many aviation learning requirements, but as discussed earlier in the chapter, it is being augmented by more realistic and ﬂuid forms of problem-based learning such as SBT. For the CFI, this type of training does not preclude traditional maneuver-based training. Rather, ﬂight maneuvers are integrated into the ﬂight scenarios and conducted as they would occur in the real world. Those maneuvers requiring repetition are still taught during concentrated settings; once learned, they are then integrated into realistic ﬂight situations.
For the aviation technician instructor, SBT enhances traditional classroom instruction. By integrating SBT into the lesson, students are required to deal with problems they will encounter in the real world.
Scenario-Based Training (SBT)
Improper pilot decisions cause a signiﬁcant percentage of all accidents and the majority of fatal accidents in light single- and twin-engine aircraft. The goal of SBT is to challenge the student or transitioning pilot with a variety of ﬂight scenarios to improve decision-making skills. These scenarios require the pilot to manage the resources available in the ﬂight deck, exercise sound judgment, and make timely decisions.
As deﬁned in chapter 4, SBT is a training method that uses a highly structured script of real world experiences to address aviation training objectives in an operational environment. Such training can include initial training, transition training, upgrade training, recurrent training, and special training. Since humans develop cognitive skills through active interaction with the world, an effective aviation instructor uses the maneuver- or procedure-based approach of the PTS but presents the objectives in a scenario situation.
Although some CFIs have used the SBT approach as a teaching method for many years, the recent emphasis on SBT in aviation training reﬂects education research that shows students learn more effectively when actively involved in the learning process. The introduction of advanced avionics is also a factor. Advanced avionics have changed the role of general aviation (GA) from an industry dominated by pleasure flying to a viable alternative to the scheduled airlines. With glass displays, GPS, and autopilot, advanced avionics may allow easier and safer operation, but are more complex.
Advanced avionics have contributed to a shift in the focus of aviation training to include aeronautical decision-making (ADM) and risk management. For the pilot, this is called Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM). Since SRM training requires the student or transitioning pilot to practice the decision-making process in real-world situations, it combines traditional task and maneuver-based training with SBT to enhance ADM, risk management, and SRM skills without compromising basic stick and rudder skills. Instead of training pilots to pass practical tests, this program focuses on expertly managed real-world challenges.
Duties, Responsibilities, and Authority of the Aviation Instructor
The duties, responsibilities, and authority of the aviation instructor include the following:
Orient new learners to the SBT approach.
Help the learner become a conﬁdent planner and a critical evaluator of his or her own performance.
Help the learner understand the knowledge requirements present in real world applications.
Diagnose learning difﬁculties and help the individual overcome them.
Evaluate student progress and maintain appropriate records.
Provide continuous review of student learning.
The aviation instructor is the key to the success of SBT. Remember, the overall learning objective is for the student to be ready to exercise sound judgment and make good decisions. For example, the ﬂight instructor must be ready to turn the responsibility for planning and execution of the ﬂight over to the student as soon as possible. The ﬂight instructor continues to demonstrate and instruct skill maneuvers in the traditional manner; but, when the student begins to make decisions, the ﬂight instructor should revert to the role of mentor and/or learning facilitator.
A situation a student faces may not have one right or one wrong answer. Instead, a student encounters situations in training that may have several “good” outcomes and few “poor” ones. Rather than requiring the student to make a decision that matches the instructor’s personal preference, he or she should understand in advance which outcomes are positive and/or negative and give the student the freedom to make both good and poor decisions. This does not mean that the student should be allowed to make an unsafe decision or commit an unsafe act. However, it does allow the student to make decisions that ﬁt his or her experience level and result in positive outcomes.
SBT Lesson Plan
The SBT lesson plan differs from the traditional lesson plan. [figure 6-8] In this example, the instructor pilot tells the student to plan for arrival at a speciﬁc nontowered airport. The planning should take into consideration the possible wind conditions, arrival paths, airport information and communication procedures, available runways, recommended traffic patterns, courses of action, and preparation for unexpected situations. Upon arrival at the airport, the student makes decisions (with guidance and feedback, as necessary) to safely enter and ﬂy the trafﬁc pattern. This is followed by a discussion of what was done, why it was done, the consequences, other possible courses of action, and how it applies to other airports. In contrast to the student who trained under the traditional lesson plan, the student who trains under the SBT format is not only capable of a speciﬁc ﬂight maneuver, he or she is now capable of detailing the safe arrival at any nontowered airport in any wind condition.
figure 6-8. SBT lesson plan.
For SBT instruction to be effective, it is vital that the aviation instructor and student establish the following information:
Desired student learning outcomes
Desired level of student performance
Possible inﬂight scenario changes
Narrative of the task goal
Desired student learning outcomes
Desired level of student performance
Possible scenario changes
The aviation industry is moving from traditional knowledge-related learning outcomes to an emphasis on increased internalized learning in which learners assess situations and react appropriately. Knowledge components are becoming an important side effect of a dynamic learning experience.
Reality is the ultimate learning situation and SBT attempts to get as close as possible to this ideal. It addresses learning that occurs in a context or situation. It is based on the concept of situated cognition, which is the idea that knowledge cannot be known and fully understood independent of its context. In other words, humans learn better, the more realistic the situation is and the more they are counted on to perform.
For example, realistic cross-country ﬂight scenarios planned and executed by the pilot in training with assistance from the ﬂight instructor begin the early development of ﬂight deck management skills, situational awareness, and ADM. Continued engagement by the student in the planning, executing, and assessment of each scenario reinforces it throughout the training. It is important to remember the student is responsible for planning the ﬂight scenario from a menu of short cross-country ﬂights developed by the training provider. While the ﬂight instructor will certainly assist the student in aircraft performance data, weight and balance, and general aircraft layout prior to the ﬁrst lesson, the sooner the student assumes these responsibilities, the better the learning environment. The scenario descriptions offered in the FAA generic syllabi are a starting point for the training provider. Scenarios can be tailored for the local weather and terrain conditions and are most effective when they replicate the environment most likely encountered by the students.
SBT is a compilation of basic learning theory, adult learning concepts, and the best of the traditional aviation training procedures. Above all, it is about learning complex tasks in a realistic environment at a pace and in a structure the individual student can comprehend and process. [figure 6-9] Good teaching techniques are still important, but only if they aid in student learning. More detailed information about SBT can be found at www.faa.gov/education_research/training/ﬁts/.
figure 6-9. Points to remember about scenario-based training.
Single-Pilot Resource Management
SRM is the art and science of managing all the resources (both on-board the aircraft and from outside sources) available to a single pilot (prior and during ﬂight) to ensure that the successful outcome of the ﬂight is never in doubt.
figure 6-10. Very light jet aircraft in flight.
The emergence of very light jet (VLJ) aircraft will revolutionize the way America travels. [figure 6-10] Central to their economic success is the concept of single-pilot operations. Since the aircraft is heavily automated, the pilot’s workload may actually be less than the current workload in a high performance single-engine aircraft of today. This allows more time for the pilot to gather and analyze information about weather, winds, landing conditions, fuel state, pilot physical condition, and passenger desires.
However, unless the pilot is trained to manage all of these factors and to let the aircraft automation assist, the workload may be very high. SRM training helps the pilot maintain situational awareness by managing the automation and associated aircraft control and navigation tasks. This enables the pilot to accurately assess, manage risk, and make accurate and timely decisions. SBT enhances SRM because SBT helps pilots learn how to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions.
As indicated by this chapter, it is possible to develop well-planned and organized instruction by using a training syllabus and lesson plans that meet all regulatory certiﬁcation requirements. By identifying and incorporating “blocks of learning” into the teaching of objectives, the instructor can plan lessons that build on prior knowledge. Maneuver and/or procedure training coupled with SBT will help the aviation instructor train professional aviators and technicians who are able to gather and analyze information to aid in making good aeronautical decisions and decrease risk factors, leading to a successful ﬂight or maintenance outcome.
As this training program evolves and new resources are introduced, aviation instructors will have immediate, web-based access to documents such as the generic transition syllabus through http://www.faa.gov/.
Another helpful website for SBT is: